Learn how to cite sources in APA (American Psychological Association) Style.
APA style uses in-text citations within the paper and a references list at the end of the paper. Each in-text citation corresponds with a references citation. The references citation provides the information the reader would need to locate that source in a library or database.
In-text citations include the author’s last name (or authors’ last names) and the year of publication:
In a study by Silvia, Fayn, Nusbaum, and Beaty (2015), participants viewed several images of the night sky and heard a recording of a song by the Icelandic band Sigur Rós.
Citations for quotations also include some indicator of the location of the quote within the text (for example, a page number, paragraph number, or section heading):
Silvia et al. (2015) designed the study to produce data on how personality differences affect “the tendency to experience the family of states related to awe, wonder, and fascination” (p. 376).
References citations include the rest of the publication information:
Silvia, P. J., Fayn, K., Nusbaum, E. C., & Beaty, R. E. (2015). Openness to experience and awe in response to nature and music: Personality and profound aesthetic experience. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 9(4), 376–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aca0000028
For more information and examples of citations for various source types, see the APA section of your writing handbook or the resources in this folder: APA Citation.
Important note: Regardless of whether you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing, all uses of source material must be cited.